PLSC 2003 -Sebold Exam 3

Term Definition
Cabinet the secretaries, or chief administrators, of the major departments of the federal government. Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president with the consent of the Senate.
commander in chief the role of the president as commander of the national military and the state national guard units (when called into service
delegated powers constitutional powers that are assigned to one governmental agency but that are exercised by another agency with the express permission of the first.
executive agreement an agreement, made between the president and another country, that has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senate's "advice and consent."
Executive Office of the President (EOP) the permanent agencies that perform defined management tasks for the president. Created in 1939, the EOP includes the OMB, the CEA, the NSC, and other agencies.
executive order a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect and formal status of legislation.
expressed powers specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress
inherent powers powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the Constitution but are inferred from it
Kitchen Cabinet an informal group of advisers to whom the president turns for counsel and guidance. Members of the official Cabinet may or may not also be members of the Kitchen Cabinet.
legislative initiative the president's inherent power to bring a legislative agenda before Congress.
pocket veto a presidential veto that is automatically triggered if the president does not act on a given piece of legislation passed during the final 10 days of a legislative session.
signing statements announcements made by the president when signing bills into law, often presenting the president's interpretation of the law.
veto the president's constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress. A presidential veto may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress.
War Powers Resolution a resolution of Congress that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of Congress, or if American troops are already under attack or serious threat.
White House staff analysts and advisers to the president, each of whom is often given the title "special assistant.
agency representation the type of representation in which representatives are held accountable to their constituency if they fail to represent that constituency properly.
appropriations the amounts of money approved by Congress in statutes (bills) that each unit or agency of government can spend.
bicameral characterized as having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses; opposite of unicameral.
bill a proposed law that has been sponsored by a member of Congress and submitted to the clerk of the House or Senate
cloture a rule allowing a majority of two-thirds or three-fifths of the members of a legislative body to set a time limit on debate over a given bill. In the U.S. Senate, 60 senators (three-fifths) must agree in order to impose such a limit
conference a gathering of House Republicans every two years to elect their House leaders. Democrats call their gathering the caucus.
conference committees joint committees created to work out a compromise on House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation.
constituency the residents in the area from which an official is elected
filibuster a tactic used by members of the Senate to prevent action on legislation they oppose by continuously holding the floor and speaking until the majority backs down.
gerrymandering the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party.
impeachment the formal charge by the House of Representatives that a government official has committed "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
incumbency holding a political office for which one is running
joint committees legislative committees formed of members of both the House and Senate.
logrolling a legislative practice whereby agreements are made between legislators in voting for or against a bill; vote trading.
majority leader the elected leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate. In the House, the majority leader is subordinate in the party hierarchy to the Speaker of the House.
minority leader the elected leader of the minority party in the House or Senate
oversight the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies.
party unity vote a roll-call vote in the House or Senate in which at least 50 per-cent of the members of one party take a particular position and are opposed by at least 50 percent of the members of the other party.
patronage the resources available to higher officials, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants, licenses, or special favors to supporters.
pocket veto a veto that occurs when the president does not sign a passed bill within 10 days of receiving it, and Congress has adjourned.
pork barrel legislation appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed but that are created to help local representatives win re-election in their home districts.
private bill a proposal in Congress to provide a specific person with some kind of relief, such as a special exemption from immigration quotas.
redistricting the process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representatives. This happens every 10 years to reflect shifts in population or in response to legal challenges to existing districts.
roll-call vote a vote in which each legislator's yes or no vote is recorded as the clerk calls the names of the members alphabetically.
select committees (usually) temporary legislative committees set up to highlight or investigate particular issues or to address issues not within the jurisdiction of existing committees.
seniority the ranking given to an individual on the basis of length of continuous service on a committee in Congress.
sociological representation a type of representation in which representatives have the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents. I
Speaker of the House the chief presiding officer of the House of Representatives. The Speaker is the most important party and House leader and can influence the legislative agenda, the fate of individual pieces of legislation, and members' positions within the House.
standing committee a permanent committee with the power to propose and write legislation that covers a particular subject, such as finance or agriculture.
term limits legally prescribed limits on the number of terms an elected official can serve.
whips party members in the House or Senate who are responsible for coordinating the party's legislative strategy, building support for key issues, and counting votes.
bureaucracy the complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of organization that are employed by all large-scale institutions to coordinate effectively the work of their personnel
department the largest subunit of the executive branch. The secretaries of the 15 departments form the Cabinet.
Federal Reserve System a system of 12 Federal Reserve banks that facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and credit; regulates member banks; and uses monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation.
fiscal policy the government's use of taxing, monetary, and spending powers to manipulate the economy.
government corporation government agency that performs a service normally provided by the private sector.
implementation the efforts of departments and agencies to translate laws into specific bureaucratic rules and actions.
independent agency agency that is not part of a cabinet department.
iron triangle the stable, cooperative relationship that often develops among a congressional committee, an administrative agency, and one or more supportive interest groups. Not all of these relationships are triangular, but the iron triangle is the most typical.
merit system a product of civil service reform, in which appointees to positions in public bureaucracies must objectively be deemed qualified for those positions.
oversight the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies.
privatization the transfer of all or part of a program from the public sector to the private sector.
regulatory agency a department, bureau, or independent agency whose primary mission is to impose limits, restrictions, or other obligations on the conduct of individuals or companies in the private sector.
revenue agency an agency responsible for collecting taxes. Examples include the Internal Revenue Service for income taxes, the U.S. Customs Service for tariffs and other taxes on imported goods

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