animal science test part 1

Question Answer
which of the following are environmental effects? management and disease
when does evolution occur? under natural selection; under artificial selection
what characteristics define a population? species, geographical area
what traits are controlled by many genes? weight gain
what are qualitative traits? coat color
what are quantitative traits? weights, number of eggs produced
what are economic trait affected by? profit, perception, trends
how many gametes can you get with two pairs of genes? 4
what affects weight gain? genetics, weather, feed level
which of the following traits are high in heritability? tenderness
which of the following traits are moderate in heriability? yearling weight
which of the following traits are low in heritability? reproduction
where would you select on the bell-shaped curve to decrease the average of the offspring? left side
where would you select on the bell-shaped curve to increase the average of the offspring? right side
what are examples of known effects? animal age, animal sex
what are examples of unknown effects? feed sources, weather
which of the following statements is true about contemporary groups? they leave as much of the environmental effect as possible
what are some ways that you can correct for the environmental effect? performance test, EPDs
EPDs estimate the differences in: offspring
what data must be included to calculate EPDs? Individual;s performance data, ancestors' performance data
which animal have EPDs? Beef cattle
which of the following traits are correlated? weaning weight, Mature weight, average daily gain
you have a selection index for litter size (0.5), growth rate (0.3), and carcass traits (0.2). what percentage of pressure are you putting on growth rate? 30%
which of the following statements is false about inbreeding? it increases heterozygosity
which of the following statements is true about inbreeding depression? it is the opposite of heterosis
which of the following statements are true about linebreeding? it is planned, it attempts to keep the positive genes in a population
which of the following statements is true about crossbreeding? it usually involves using a complementary effect
which of the following statements are false about mongrelization? it is not a form of crossbreeding, the maximum benefits of heterosis will never be achieved.
which trait does heterosis have the greatest effect on? ribeye area, carcass quality
what distinguishes breed from purebred? a breed usually has an established registry; a purebred animal may or may not be recognized with a breed association.
which of the following statements is true about the estrous cycle? it includes estrus and non-estrus
which of the following hormones stimulates ovulation? FSH
what are function of the testicles? sperm cell production, testosterone production
how long is the gestation length of the cow? 9 months
which of the following are organs of the female reproductive tract? cervix, vagina, ovaries
what are roles of the male in animal reproduction? provides sperm
where does fertilization occur in mammals? oviducts
which of the following are functions of the uterus? fetus expulsion, fetus incubation, sperm transport
where do pig embryos develop? uterine horns
what structure is one the cow and ewe cervix that protects the fetus from toxins? mucosal lining
which of the following organs are part of the female reproductive and urinary systems? vagina, vulva, bladder
what functions does the endocrine system control? Lactation, growth
which of the following are gonads? ovaries and testicles
which of the following is a function of estrogen? prepares uterus for implantation
which of the following is a function of progesterone? maintains pregnancy
which of the following is a function of FSH? Stimulates follicle growth
where does the corpus luteum form? on the ovary
which of the following is a function of LH? stimulates ovulation
which of the following classes does testosterone belong to? steroid
when is the CL maintained? when conception occurs
what does the anterior pituitary gland produce? LH, FSH
what is the function of the seminiferous tubules? produce sperm
which muscle does the scrotum use to regulate testicular temperature? cremaster
what is the function of the Vas Deferens? deliver sperm to urethra
when are fluids added to the sperm? prior to ejaculation
what is the male organ of copulation? penis
what muscle causes the bull, boar, ram, and buck to be S-shaped? sigmoid flexure
True/ False: the stallion penis contains a lot of erectile tissue True
True/ False: the bull penis changes in size during and erection. False
which animal produces the most sperm? boar
how many sperm does it take to fertilize an ovum? 1
what is breeding season affected by? anestrous
True/ False: pregnant females continuously cycle. False
which of the following animals give birth only in the fall? none of the above
which of the following are short-day breeders? sheep
which of the following are long-day breeders? Horses
what hormone is affected by day length? melationin
what hormone does melatonin shut off? FSH. LH, Gonadotropins
which of the following statement describes a freemartin Heifer born twin to bull, Sterile heifer
which of the following terms describes dystocia? difficult labor
True/ False: eggs are gestated in poultry. False
True/ False: poultry do not go throughthe estrous cycle true
True/ False: in poultry, the egg and ovum are the same thing. False
in poultry, which of the ovaries is functional? left ovary
which of the following statements describes poultry ovulation? release of mature yolk from ovary
where does fertilization occur in poultry? infundibulum
True/ False: an unfertilized egg will not produce a chick true
which of the following segments of the poultry oviduct describes the magnum? collects ovum from ovary
what systems is the cloaca associated with? urinary system, digestive system, reproductive system
what is the terminal end of the poultry digestive system? vent
True/ False: poultry testes are located outside the body in a sac called the scrotum. False
True/ False: male poultry do not have a penis True
How long can a hen store sperm? 3 weeks
True/ False: to settle is to become pregnant True
gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovulation in female mammals and androgen release in male mammals luteinizing hormone
all chromosomes not involved in sex determination autosomes
percent of phenotypic variation due to genotype heritability
value derived from placing different emphases on traits that have economic value selection index
common passage area for reproductive, urinary, and digestive system cloaca
any material that is used as a nutrient source for biological systems feedstuff
surgical excision of one or both testicles or ovaries, performed most frequently to reduce gamete production or hormone secretion castration
long, single strand of nucleotides that plays crucial roles in decoding DNA and transferring genetic information to cytoplasm for protein synthesis ribonucleic acid
a matched pair of chromosomes that have the same gene sequences, with each derived from a separate parent Homologous chromosomes
simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms; widely found in plant and animal tissue glucose
system that functions in support, protection, and movement; important in blood cell formation and mineral storage skeletal system
formation and production of ovum or female reproductive cell oogenesis
circulating level of a hormone resulting in additional release of that hormone or another hormone positive feedback
external sac of skin enclosing testes that functions to keep testes at optimal temperature for sperm production scrotum
study of the chemical processes in living organisms and includes structures and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other bio-molecules Biochemistry
the study of all biological aspects of food-producing animals animal science
chemical molecule or solution able to accept or donate H+ in order to control the pH of a system buffer
small vessel that allows blood to interact with cells capillary
yellow, progesterone- secreting mass of cells that forms from an ovarian follicle after the release of a mature egg corpus luteum
results from mating animals where positive trait(s) of one animal will correct negative trait(s) of the other animal complementary effect
system that functions in allowing animals to interact with internal and external environments nervous system
animal having only one stomach compartment where low pH protein digestion occurs; examples are humans, poultry, and swine monogastric
order of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule; determines structure of proteins encoded by that DNA base sequence
process of delivering the fetus and placenta from the uterus through the vagina to the outside world parturition
all processes of chemical modifications that occur inside the body or at the cellular level metabolism
genetic evaluations designed to remove environmental differences to allow fair genetic comparisons performance test
naturally occurring complex molecules containing n,c,h,o, and sometimes s and p; made of complex combos of amino acids and lined by peptide bonds protein
visible expression of genes that can be measured phenotype
describes a female that is incapable of producing offspring barren
heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds with 4 nitrogens; with DNA, these are adenine and guanine purines
time period when a female does not cycle or exhibit estrus anestrous
diploid cell resulting from division of an undifferentiated male germ cell spermatocyte
unborn young of vertebrates that have basic structural resemblance to the adult animal fetus
membrane- enclosed cellular organelle that contains multiple DNA molecules that control cell activity by regulating gene expression nucleus
all organelles and other materials within the cell excluding the nucleus and nuclear membrane cytoplasm
long chain of hydrocarbons derived with a single carboxylic group and aliphatic tail that play a critical role in structure and metabolism fatty acid
segmented organ in poultry that collects egg yolk from ovary and forms complete egg poultry oviduct
bond where a pair of electrons are shared between two atoms covalent bond
structures on ruminant uterus where attachment to placenta occurs to facilitate transfer of nutrients caruncle
measure of acidity or basicity of a solution and is related to the molar concentration of dissolved hydrogen ions pH
stage in development marked by development of secondary sex characteristics and the point where females initiate their first estrus and males produce sperm puberty
male or female reproductive cell, either sperm(male) or ovum(female) gamete
biological process that involves the combining of an ovum and sperm conceoption
group of cells that function in movement and heat production muscle tissue
organ designed to filter metabolic waste from blood and produce urine. Kidney
male organ of copulation in higher vertebrates; also used for urine excretion in many mammals penis
study of heredity and variation in living organisms genetics
chemicals secreted by endocrine gland that has a specific effect on another organ(s) in other parts of the body; chemical messengers that control specific actions within the body hormone
steroid hormone secreted by corpus luteum on ovary and by placenta that acts to prepare the uterus for implantation of the zygote, maintain pregnancy, and promote mammary gland development progesterone
non- viable cell produced by division of an undifferentiated female germ cell polar body
traits that are objectively measured and the measure varies along a scale quantitative trait
hormone produced by the pineal gland whose secretion is regulated by photoperiod melatonin

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