5TH QTR Mr. Lewis- RA- QUIZ #1

Question Answer
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi the elvis muscle (or the sneering muscle)
zygomaticus major the laughing muscle
levator anguli oris aka caninus muscle
buccinator trumpeters muscle
risorius false smile (or a smirk)
depressor anguli oris aka triangularis
depressor labii inferioris (quadratus) associated with fear and distaste
mentalis inserts into the "Skin of the chin"
platysma important to surface form as it softens the contours of the neck
contraction of the sternocleidomastoid moves the head sideways
alternate action of the sternocleidomastoid rotates the head
when coordinated the sternocleidomastoid pulls the head forward
digastricus anterior belly of the two muscles is responsible for one form of the chords of the neck
facial muscles make up the first tissue layer over the bones of the face
the superficial muscles create facial form and expression
the movement of muscles under the skin is what gives rise to the formation of prominencesfoldshollowsfurrows
for every muscle pulling in one direction there is another muscle which returns it to position
origin refers to the end of a muscle which is attached to a fixed point
on the face, the origin is usually on an immovable bone or cartilage
insertion refers to the end of a muscle which is attached to a movable part of the body or to the skin
it is upon the insertion that the pull of a muscle is applied
for every muscle pulling in one direction there is another muscle which returns the body part to its original position
quadrilateral muscles the fibers are parallel and run directly from the origin to their insertion
sphincter muscles an encircling muscle that surrounds a natural orifice
double bellied muscles two fleshy portions that are separated by a tendon or aponeurosis
aponeurosis (aponeurotica) a flattened, ribbon shaped tendon
wrinkles aka furrows
wrinkles cross the direction of muscles at right angles
muscles with fibers that run vertically will cause furrows that run horizontally
muscles with fibers that run horizontally will cause furrows that run vertically
occipitofrontalis aka epicranius
the rear or posterior portion of the occipitofrontalis is referred to as the occipitalis
the front or posterior portion of the occipitofrontalis is referred to as the frontalis
very large muscle that covers the top and sides of the skull occipitofrontalis (epicranius)
this muscle is composed of two broad bellies which are connected by the galea aponeurotica occipitofrontalis (epicranius)
galea aponeurotica aka epicranial aponeurosis
these muscles have effect on the movement of the scalp auricular
auricular anterior posteriorsuperior
these are three thin muscles in the region of the ear that have no effect on surface form auricular
muscles of mastication temporalis (2)masseter (2)pterygoids (2)
pterygoids pterygoideus medialaspterygoideus lateralis
this muscle brings the teeth together temporalis
a broad radiating muscle shaped like a fan temporalis
the strongest of the chewing muscles with no effect on surface form temporalis
this muscle receives its name from its action which is chewing or mastication masseter
located on the side of the face and when contracted it raises the lower jaw masseter
deep muscles that permit side to side movement of the lower jaw pterygoideus
muscles that originate from the sphenoid bone and they do not actually tear food they grind it pterygoids
muscles of the eyelids orbicularis oculi (2)corrugator (2)levator palpebrae superioris (2)
orbicularis refers to sphincter
oculi refers to eye
a broad thin sphincter muscle surrounding the eye orbicularis oculi
this muscle is associated with crows feet orbicularis oculi
"crows feet" aka optic facial sulci
corrugator known as the frowning muscle
this muscle is located at the medial end of the eyebrow and it is small narrow and pyramidal in shape corrugator
when the two corrugators contract they produce vertical furrows between the eyebrows
the elevator of the upper eyelid levator palpebrae superioris
this muscle originates deep in the eye socket levator palpebrae superioris
contraction of this muscle raises the upper eyelid levator palpebrae superioris
this muscle is long thin flat and triangular in shape and when it is impossible to close the upper eyelid this muscle may be severed levator palpebrae superioris
muscle of the nose procerus (1)
this is a long thin slip of muscle and when it contracts the medial ends of the eyebrows are drawn down procerus
muscle that runs vertically up the nose procerus
nasalis muscle runs horizontally across the nose
muscle of the lower part of the nose and it serves to elevate dilate depress and contract the nostrils nasalis
orbicularis oris known as the puckering or whistling muscle
this is the sphincter muscle that encircles the mouth orbicularis oris
contraction of the orbicularis oris closes and puckers the lips
unlike the sphincter of the eye, the orbicularis oris is composed primarily of fibers from other facial and lip muscles
the QLS a group of three muscles which act independently or in unison extend along the entire lower margin of the eye socket
the three muscles of the QLS levator labii superioris alaeque nasilevator labii superioris zygomaticus minor
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi "common elevator" medial muscle of the QLS
levator = elevator
labii = lips
superioris = superior
alaqeque = wing
nasi = nose
levator labii superioris the middle or intermediate muscle of the QLS this muscle raises the upper lip
zygomaticus minor most lateral muscle of the QLS it inserts into the upper lip at the angle of the mouth
the skull is composed of two sections the cranium (8 bones)the face (14 bones)
number of bones in the cranium 8
number of bones in the face 14
in form the skull may be described as egg shaped or oval
purposes of the skull protect the brain support the jawsserve as an attachment for muscles give form to the head
8 bones of the cranium frontalparietal (2)temporal (2)occipital ethmoidsphenoid
sagittal joint between the two parietal bones of the skull
coronal joint that separates the frontal and parietal bones of the skull
squamosal joint that connects the temporal squama with the lower border of the parietal bone
lambdoidal joint on the posterior aspect of the skull that connect the parietal bones with the occipital bone
the occipital bone lowest part of the back and base of the skull
"cradle of the brain" occipital bone
large opening in the occipital bone which permits the spinal cord, spinal arteries and nerves to enter and exit the skull foramen magnum
foramen opening or hole in a bone
landmark used to find the foramen magnum the occipital protuberance
occiput = the back or posterior part of the head or skull
these bones create the superior portion of the two sides and back of the cranium as well as the posterior 2/3 of the roof of the cranium parietal bones
the parietal bones articulate with temporal bonesoccipital bonefrontal bone
sutures are where the bones "knit" together
the outer boundaries of parietal articulation coronal suturesquamosal suture lambdoidal suture
sagittal suture the highest or most superior of the cranial dome
the vertex of the cranium sagittal suture
the "mark" near the center of each parietal bone parietal eminence
the widest part of the cranium is measured between the parietal eminences
the parietal eminences are located a short distance above the posterior border of the ear
these bones create the lower portion of the sides and base of the cranium temporal bones
squama the vertical portion of the temporal bone
the thinnest part of the skull, scale like thin and translucent. you can see light through it squama
the vertical portion of the temporal bone squama
four structures employed as guides in replacement and positioning of the reconstructed ear are zygomatic archmandibular fossa mastoid processexternal auditory meatus
all four structures that are the guides for replacement of reconstructed ear are all part of what bone temporal bone
what projects from the lower part of the squama the zygomatic arch
used to establish the widest part of the face the zygomatic arch
used to locate the correct position of the ear the zygomatic arch
divides the ear into equal halves the zygomatic arch
small oval depression on the under surface of the temporal bone mandibular fossa
located posterior to the zygomatic arch mandibular fossa
the condyle of the lower jaw fits into what socket the mandibular fossa
acts as a hinge for the lower jaw the mandibular fossa
dislocation of this articulation may be a corrective treatment for "buck teeth" mandibular fossa
the mastoid process is situated under the earlobe
opening of the ear passage external auditory meatus
the front border of the ear is in alignment with this opening external auditory meatus
primary structure for the accurate location and position of a reconstructed ear external auditory meatus
forms the forehead and the anterior 1/3 of the roof of the skull frontal bone
the surface of the frontal bone abruptly changes direction at the frontal eminences
the vertical portion of the frontal bone forehead
the horizontal portion of the frontal bone crown
superciliary arches lie above the medial ends of the eyebrows
the small smooth elevation which lies between the supercilliary arches the glabella
the eminence just above the root of the nose the glabella
forms the upper rim of the eye-socket supraorbital margins
cheekbone = zygomatic arch
forms the lateral and lower rim of the eye socket zygomaticofrontal process
together they create a dome over the superior part of the nasal cavity and "dip" posteriorly to the glabella nasal bones
maxilla formed by two large bones of the upper jaw
where the two bones of the maxilla join at the inferior margin of the nasal cavity and where they send out a small sharp spur nasal spine
thickest and most spongy part of the maxillae the alveolar process
sockets for the teeth the alveolar process
how many alveolar process 16
lower jaw called the mandible
two perpendicular structures which are quadrilateral in shape on either side of the mandible are the ramus
curved in the form of a horseshoe the body of the mandible
the body of the mandible has three important structures the alveolar process the mental eminencethe incisive fossa
the position of the lower jaw affects the surface contour of the mouth
the lower lip should be slightly posterior to the upper lip
in normal repose, the upper and lower teeth are not tightly contactedthere is a slight interval between them
tight facial muscle will change the form of the cheeks
the mental eminence is "marked" by a faint vertical ridge on the midline of the body of the mandible
each ramus terminates in two processes the coronoid processcondyle of the ramus
fossa = depression or concave recession
the angle of the mandible is chiefly responsible for the geometric form of the head when viewed from the front
"Bat shaped bone" sphenoid bone
the cribiform plate is part of the ethmoid bone
the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone makes up part of the nasal septum
lacrimal = tears
the smallest and most fragile bone in the face the lacrimal bone
palate roof of the mouth composed of two bones called the palatine bones
vomer = plowshare
along with the perpindicular plat of the ethmoid bone the vomer forms the nasal septum
the wall that divides the nasal cavity into right and left parts nasal septum
how many bones in the skull 22
how many pairs of bones in the skull 8 (for a total of 16)
how many bones in the skull are single bones 6
how many bones of the face 14
how many bones in pairs in the face 6 (for a total of 12)
how many single bones of the face 2
how many bones of the cranium 8
how many bones in pairs in the cranium 2 (for a total of 4)
how many single bones in the cranium 4
how many bones in skull for ear 6 bones or 3 pair
restorative art the care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color
form refers to the shape of the surface structure , head , which is recognizable by its outline and surface movement. Involves three dimensions: length width and projection.
color refers to those rays of light reflected from the surface, skin color, which is basically determined by its spectral composition. Also, shadow and highlights.
minor restoration require a minimum of effort, skill, and time to complete
major restoration take a longer period of time and require extensive skill
time table restoration treatments for pre-embalming corrective positioning eyes mouth nose suturing in place
time table restoration treatments for embalming color, swelling
time table restoration for post embalming removal of mutilated tissue treatment of swelling wax: surface, deep wound
restorative art as we know it has reached its highest level of performance mainly in USCanada
restorative art goes back to egyptians
unlike today- egyptians focused on what type of restoration whole body for reincarnation
demi-surgery the art of building or creating parts of the body which had been destroyed by accident, disease, decomposition or discoloration and making the body perfectly natural and lifelike
FATHER OF RESTORATIVE ART joseph crandall
physiognomy the study of structures and surface markings of the face and features
physical anthropology the study of humans as biological species with interest in evolution and modern human variations
taxonomy an orderly classification of plants or animals by their presumed natural relationships
morphology means shape – study and form of structure of organisms and their structural features
two of the most important influences on human form and behavior are environmentnutrition
races european asian african
leptorrhine = narrow nose
mesorrhine = intermediate nose
platyrrhine wide nose
skin color determined by the amount of melanin, carotene, and blood present.
the darker the skin- the more melanin is present
cells within the dermis that produce melanin are called melanocytes
melanosomes in black skin larger more oval and singly dispersed
melanosomes in white skin smaller and more aggregated
melanin protects the skin from the rays of the sun and absorbs ultraviolet light
stratum corneum top layer of skin
the stratum corneum in african and asiatic races is more compact has greater permeability
which kind of skin tone contains 40-60% more sebaceous oil producing glands darker skin
dark skin can make white massage cream turn gray
the use of what can result in ashen skin titanium oxide talcother white powders in cosmetics
xeroxes = ashen skin
the use of orange or yellow tinted cosmetic powders may be preferred for people with black, bronze, red or yellow complexions
anatomical position the body is erect, feet together, palms facing upward, upper limbs are at the sides with thumbs pointed away from the body
superior towards the head
inferior towards the feet
anterior (ventral) towards the front
posterior (dorsal) towards the rear or caudal end
medial towards the midline
lateral towards the side, away from the midline
projection a part extending beyond the level of its surroundings
recession the withdrawal of a part from its normal position
depression a hollow or concave region
protrusion the state or condition of being thrust forward or projecting
concave exhibiting a depressed or hollow surface, a concavity
convex curved evenly , resembling a segment of the outer edge of a sphere
inclination slope
bilateral differences dissimilaritis existing in the two sides or half of an object
median plane= sagittal plane
horizontal plane= transverse
frontal plane = coronal

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